Raw beef dishes may not be for everyone but love them or hate them; they may be worth trying at least once in your life (unless you’re a vegetarian or vegan.) From classic steak tartare to the now-banned raw beef liver dish from Japan, read on if you want to learn about unique and meaty raw meat dishes from around the world.
Raw Beef Dishes from around the world
When it comes to raw meat dishes, many people immediately think of raw fish and sushi from Japan.
However, there are many raw beef dishes which are not well known or understood outside their country of origin.
I’ve compiled a list of nearly 20 raw beef dishes, prepared in various ways in different parts of the world, from classic French tartare to spiced Middle Eastern raw ground beef to the now-banned raw beef liver dish from Japan.
Each has its distinct flavour and texture that may surprise you, delight you, shock you, or make you drool.
Let’s start with the world-famous French steak tartare, aka beef tartare, then move on to lesser-known raw meat dishes.
1) Tartare de boeuf (beef tartare aka steak tartare)
Steak tartare needs no introduction.
This French dish usually consists of finely chopped or minced raw beef such as sirloin or tenderloin seasoned with Dijon mustard, Worcestershire sauce, salt, pepper, and other ingredients such as capers, gherkins, and shallots.
Everything is mixed together, placed in a round mould and topped with a raw egg yolk.
Sometimes the ingredients are premixed, and sometimes it’s up to the diner to mix the chopped ingredients at the table.
This dish is often served at French bistros and brasseries in France with French fries, “pommes frites,” or toasted bread.
I have a whole article dedicated to steak tartare, which you can read here: Steak Tartare 101: The Raw Facts about Your Burning Questions
2) Cannibal Sandwich, aka tiger meat sandwich
During the winter holiday in parts of the Midwestern US states, such as Wisconsin, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Minnesota, families like to spread raw ground beef seasoned with salt and pepper on crackers or bread topped with raw onions.
This raw beef sandwich and spread are called a “cannibal sandwich” by the locals, but sometimes it’s called tiger meat.
Recipes vary, but some like to add capers, eggs, and Worcestershire into the mixture.
No one is 100% sure of the origins of the “cannibal sandwich,” but German and northern European settlers may have brought it to the Midwest in the late 19th or early 20th century.
In Germany, a similar dish called “Mett” consists of raw minced pork seasoned with salt and pepper served on a bread roll with butter and onions.
3) Parisa: Texan tartare
Parisa is a Tex-Mex tartare popular in Medina County and Castroville, Texas, just west of San Antonia.
This Texan tartare is made with raw ground or chopped beef sirloin mixed with cheese, jalapeños, onions, salt, and pepper and cured in lime juice. Some people like adding additional seasonings or ingredients such as garlic, Worcestershire, cayenne,
No matter the recipe, it’s usually eaten as a spread on saltine crackers, bread or with chips.
The origin of the name Parisa is a bit of a mystery. Some think it’s from the French word “Parisien,” while others believe it was named after the Alsatian’s French heritage, who, according to locals, brought this dish to Medina County when they first settled in the area in the mid-1800s. Alsatians are known for their unique blend of French and German cuisine, including their love for charcuterie and raw meat dishes.
Over time, the Alsacian community in Texas grew, and Parisa became a popular dish among the local community, especially among hunters and ranchers who would prepare this dish with freshly hunted game or beef.
People in the area usually make Parisa at home, but you can easily find it served at weddings, in nicer restaurants, BBQ joints, and meat markets in Medina County and the surrounding areas.
If you want to try this regional dish, head over to Dziuk’s Meat Market, a family-owned and operated meat market located in Castroville, Texas, founded in 1926, which is considered to have one of the best and most authentic versions of this Texan Tartare.
4) Tartare de bœuf à l’érable (maple syrup beef tartare)
Quebec is known for its unique cuisine, which blends French, British, and Canadian influences. Some popular dishes include Poutine, Cretons, Smoked meat sandwiches, Tourtière, sugar pies and, of course, maple syrup.
My cousin makes and cans his maple syrup from the maple trees on his property in Quebec. I always bring a few cans of maple syrup back to France when I visit, but not for pancakes because maple syrup is also a popular ingredient for recipes.
Given the popularity of Maple syrup in Canada, it should come as no surprise that you can find creative recipes using maple syrup. One of those is a Québécois twist on the classic French tartar, which is to add maple syrup, which gives this raw meat dish a unique, slightly sweet flavour that sets it apart from other versions of steak tartare.
You can also find other Canadian tartare recipe twists, such as the addition of cranberry, blueberries, pecans and even bacon.
Belgium and the Netherlands
5) Filet Américain (American Filet)
Belgium may be known for its chocolate, waffles and beer culture, but what most tourists don’t realize is that it’s also home to the “Filet Américain,” aka “Americain préparé,”
This popular Belgian raw beef dish starts with many of the same ingredients as French steak tartare such as mustard, Worcestershire, raw egg yolk, chopped capers, gherkins, and onions.
However, the Belgian version includes mayonnaise, paprika, tabasco, and sometimes chopped parsley. Some people like spicing things up with curry powder or pepper sauce. Another difference is that the Belgian tartare mixture is blended until it becomes a fine sticky red meat paste, which is then spread onto crackers or a piece of bread to eat as a snack.
To make the recipe for Filet mérican, you have to use extra lean minced beef, which you mince at home with a blender, but in Belgium, you can pick up some pre-minced beef under the name “Américain Nature.”
This raw meat dish is also popular in the Netherlands, where it’s called “Amerikaans filet.” French or Belgian immigrants looking for work may have brought this dish to the Netherlands in the early 20th century.
You can order filet Américan in coffee shops and restaurants or buy a premade tub of this raw meat spread at supermarkets, and butcher shops, throughout Belgium and the Netherlands.
The Belgian Martino is a popular spicy raw ground beef sandwich in Belgium and the Netherlands.
All you have to do is take your basic Filet Américain meat paste, which I discussed above, and slather it on a split baguette. Then add various things to the sandwich. Some popular choices include sliced boiled eggs, tomatoes, chopped gherkin pickles, onions, and lettuce.
Then for la pièce de résistance, add some spicy Martino sauce which varies by recipe, but the ingredients usually include mayonnaise, ketchup, paprika, Worcestershire sauce, and
Why is it called the Marino?
The Belgian Martino sandwich is supposedly named after the Belgian footballer Jean-Paul “Jan” Martens, who played for FC Antwerp in the 1960s and 1970s. No one knows for sure why this sandwich was named after him, but there are different theories.
Some think Martens used to order this raw meat sandwich in his favourite café in Antwerp, and the owner named it after him. Others believe that Martens created the sandwich.
7) Ossenworst (Ox Sausage)
Ossenworst, or “Ox Sausage” in Dutch, is a popular sausage in the Netherlands that used to be made from ox meat, but today it’s typically made from lean, finely ground beef. The meat is then seasoned with a blend of
Dutch “Ossenworst” shares a lot in common with German “Ochsenwurst,” which is usually slowly smoked, while the Dutch version can be eaten raw or smoked, depending on the butcher. If smoked, Ossenworst looks a lot like a thick piece of salami. If eaten raw, it looks like raw sausage meat.
Some people prefer to eat “Ossenworst” raw, while others like to grill or fry it. In Amsterdam, it’s often served with pickled vegetables, like pearl onions that have been pickled with turmeric, known as “Amsterdamse uitjes.” If you’re feeling fancy, you can also make a sandwich with Ossenworst, topped with onions, mustard, and lettuce – a classic Dutch treat known as “broodje ossenworst.”
It’s worth noting that an ox is any beef cattle over four years old that’s been trained to do work. While Ossenworst might not be made with ox meat anymore, its name serves as a nod to its historical roots.
8) Beef Kelaguen
Kelaguen is a cooking method of preparing beef, chicken or seafood with lemon juice, salt, scotch bonnets or Thai chillies, onions, and other ingredients such as grated coconut, soy sauce, and green onions. The acid in the lemon juice “cooks” the meat or seafood, similar to ceviche.
This way of preparing food is common in many Pacific Island cuisine dishes. However, kelaguen is the signature dish of the Chamoru people, the indigenous people of the Mariana Islands, a territory of the United States which includes Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. The Chamorro culture is a mix of indigenous and foreign influences, including Spanish and American, due to the island’s history of colonization.
Kaleguen dishes are a popular party or celebration food usually served with rice or with flour titiyas, which are a cross between a flour tortilla and bread.
Photo courtesy of Homplate in Guam
9) Crudos Valdiviano (Raw Valdivia)
This dish can also be referred to as “Crudo Alemán” or “Bistec Alemán” (Raw German or Raw steak)
“Crudos Valdiviano” is a German-Chilean dish from Valdivia, a city in southern Chile that was heavily settled by German immigrants in the 19th century who brought their culinary traditions, including the consumption of raw meat: a food custom which wasn’t common in Chilean cuisine before their arrival.
Over time, the Chilean adaptation of this dish emerged, which includes local ingredients and flavours.
Crudos Valdiviano is made with a special lean, finely chopped raw beef called lomo vetado,” often translated as “strip loin” or “sirloin strip.”
The raw meat is then marinated in lemon juice mixed with chopped onions, salt, pepper, and olive oil and served on bread as an appetizer. Sometimes it’s served with a sauce made from yogurt and mayonnaise and accompanied by avocado and tomato slices.
Depending on the region, some people make this dish with raw fish.
10) Crudo Chileno (Chilean raw)
Crudo Chileno is a Chilean beef tartare which consists of raw beef seasoned with salt, pepper, onion, and lemon juice. Sometimes chopped cilantro, parsley, gherkins, or chilli peppers are mixed in to give it a spicy touch.
11) Carne apache (Apache meat)
“Carne Apache,” which means Apache meat is a Mexican-style beef tartare.
The best way to describe Carne Apache is a cross between steak tartare because of the raw beef and a ceviche because the raw beef is left to marinate in the acids of lime which essentially cooks the meat.
The dish’s name supposedly refers to the term “Apache cut,” which is believed to have been how the Native American Apache people sliced their meat very thinly against the grain, which helped to make it more tender and easier to chew.
Once the raw ground beef is marinated in lime juice and vinegar for a few hours, it’s seasoned with salt, pepper, and chilli powder. Depending on the recipe, diced tomatoes, avocado, onions, jalapeno and cilantro may be added to make a sort of tartare salsa or the ingredients can be used as a topping.
There are several ways to eat “carne Apache” as an appetizer, either on its own, with tortilla chips, or on a tostada.
12) Ceviche de res (beef ceviche)
Ceviche is the national dish of Peru and a popular dish in many Latin American cuisines, typically made with raw fish and seafood marinated in lime or lemon juice.
Like Mexican cuisine, there is a Peruvian version of ceviche made with raw ground beef called Ceviche de res, which means beef ceviche, also made of thinly sliced or minced raw beef marinated in lime juice and mixed with onions, chilli peppers, and other seasonings.
Ceviche de res is typically served as a cold appetizer or main dish, often accompanied by chunks of corn, boiled potatoes, or sweet potato garnished with cilantro.
Some belive that the origins of the word “ceviche” comes from the Quechua word “siwichi,” which means “fresh fish,” while others argue it comes from the Spanish word “cebiche,” which refers to the marinade used in the dish.
Carpaccio is a well-known Italian dish made with paper-thin slices of raw beef.
It’s usually served as an appetizer, accompanied by fresh arugula, shaved Parmesan cheese, and a drizzle of olive oil and lemon juice. Some variations also include capers.
The lore behind this famous Italian dish is that it was invented in the 1950s or 1960s by Giuseppe Cipriani, who owned Harry’s Bar in Venice, Italy.
Giuseppe named this dish Carpaccio after Vittore Carpaccio, an Italian painter, because the vibrant red colour of the raw meat slices reminded him of the bright red and pink colours Vittore Carpaccio used in his paintings.
There is a similar dish to beef Carpaccio called “Filetto di manzo crudo,” an Italian phrase that translates to “raw beef tenderloin” in English.
The term “carpaccio” is often used interchangeably with “filetto di manzo crudo” in some regions of Italy.
14) Carne Cruda all’Albese (Raw Meat in the Style of Alba)
Carne Cruda all’Albese is an Italian dish from Alba, a town in the Piedmont region of Italy known for its cuisine.
It’s made with finely chopped raw beef or veal and is a much simpler and fresher take on the classic French steak tartare.
It contains olive oil, salt, pepper and a little garlic which are mixed into the meat with a few drops of lemon juice.
Like any recipe, there are variations.
Some chefs or home cooks add anchovies, shaved Parmesan cheese or
15) Tartare di manzo con uovo (Beef tartare with egg)
Tartare di manzo con uovo, literally Beef tartare with egg is very similar to French beef tartare.
Both are raw beef dishes served with a raw egg on top, but there are differences.
French tartare often includes mustard, Worcestershire sauce, and capers, while “Tartare di manzo con uovo “may use different seasonings such as olive oil, lemon juice, and Parmesan cheese.
French tartare usually includes a raw egg yolk, while for “Tartare di manzo con uovo,” the egg is typically served with the egg white and yolk intact.
16) Bocadillo de Carpaccio de Ternera (Sandwich of Veal Carpaccio)
Bocadillo de Carpaccio de Ternera is a Spanish sandwich made with veal carpaccio. Like Italian Carpacio, this Spanish dish consists of thinly sliced raw meat seasoned with olive oil, lemon juice, salt, and pepper. Some people like to add herbs such as dried oregano or basil to enhance the flavour. Everything is layered onto a sandwich roll or baguette, along with other ingredients such as arugula, Parmesan cheese, and maybe a little mayonnaise sauce.
“Bocadillo” is a Spanish word that refers to a small sandwich or snack, which is often served as a light meal or snack in Spain.
17) Kibbeh Nayyeh (raw ball or raw dome)
Kibbeh Nayyeh (also spelled kibbe nayyeh or kibbeh nayeh) is a Middle Eastern dish made with raw ground beef or raw lamb mixed with bulgur wheat, onions and
The name “Kibbeh Nayyeh” literally translates to “raw ball” or “raw dome” in Arabic because the mixture is usually formed into various shapes, such as balls or domes.,
The dish is often served as a mezze (appetizer) with pita bread or crackers and is popular in Lebanon, Syria, and other countries in the region.
18) Çiğ köfte (raw meatball)
Çiğ köfte, pronounced chee kofta, is a fatless spicy raw meatball specialty in both Turkish and Armenian cuisine whose name means “raw meatball” that’s closely related to the Lebanese raw meat dish “kibbeh nayyeh.”
Çiğ köfte is made by kneading bulgar, chopped onions and water with raw ground beef or raw lamb until it has a soft and sticky paste-like consistency. Then tomato, chilli paste, and
Çiğ köfte is usually shaped into small balls or patties as a snack or appetizer (meze) accompanied by a side of lettuce leaves, lemon wedges, and sometimes pomegranate sauce.
There are vegetarian and vegan versions of çiğ köfte, where the raw ground meat is usually replaced with cooked or mashed red lentils, which gives it a similar texture and flavour.
To differentiate between the raw meat version and the vegetarian or vegan version, it may be referred to as “vegan çiğ köfte” or “mercimekli çiğ köfte” which means “lentil çiğ köfte.”
Some other meatless variations use walnuts, mushrooms or even scrambled eggs. Instead of meat.
19) Kachila (raw meat or fresh meat)
Kachila is a raw meat dish that means raw meat or fresh meat. It’s a dish popular among the Newar, the indigenous people of the Kathmandu Valley in Nepal, located in the Himalayan region of South Asia. The Newar have a unique culture and language whose cuisine has been shaped by neighbouring countries such as India, Tibet, and China.
This dish is sometimes referred to as “Kacho Masu” which literally translates to “minced meat.”
Kchila can be made with chicken or lamb, but the beef version is made from finely minced water buffalo meat that has been marinated in a special blend of
Once the meat has fully marinated, it’s typically served chilled as an appetizer and can be garnished with sliced green onion, green chilli, and a squeeze of lemon juice.
In some variations of beef Kachila, hot oil, such as mustard oil containing fenugreek seed, is poured into the minced meat and mixed together just before serving. This step does slightly cook the meat, but it’s still, for the most part, very rare.
20) Yukhoe and yukhoe bibimbap (raw meat)
Yukhoe, which means “raw meat,” is a Korean dish made with raw beef tenderloin cut into thin strips or diced into small cubes that’s also popular in Japan.
The raw beef is usually marinated in soy sauce, sesame oil, sugar, salt, black pepper, and other
Sometimes pear or apple may be added to tenderize the meat.
The dish is then topped with a raw egg yolk and served with accompaniments such as julienned Asian pear, sliced pine nuts, peppers, or shredded scallions on the side. Sometimes, a small amount of sesame oil is drizzled over the top before serving.
To eat this dish, the ingredients are mixed together by the diner to distribute the flavours evenly and to coat the meat in the egg yolk.
21) Gyu sashimi aka Gyusashi (Beef sashimi)
“Gyu sashimi” is a Japanese dish that consists of thinly sliced raw beef, often accompanied by ponzu sauce, a seasoned soy sauce with a vinegar kick and topped with shiso leaves.
Or it can be accompanied by dipping sauces like soy sauce, wasabi, and grated ginger.
The Japanese word “Gyu” means beef, while “sashimi” literally translates to “pierced flesh or pierced body” (Sashi “stabbing” and mi “body” or “flesh“).
Sashimi is a culinary term that refers to the Japanese way of serving raw seafood or meat sliced thinly and arranged on a plate in a visually appealing way, often pierced with decorative skewers, as opposed to “tataki,” which is meat or seafood that has been slightly seared on the outside but raw on the inside.
Japanese beef sashimi can be made with various types of beef, but the best often include the prized Wagyu beef cattle, such as Kobe beef which is known for its high level of marbling and tenderness, which makes them great for sashimi.
22) Gyudon sashimi (Raw beef bowl)
Gyudon means beef bowl in Japanese.
This delicious and inexpensive Japanese dish is iconic in Japan.
It consists of a bowl of warm, freshly steamed rice topped with thinly sliced fatty beef and sliced onions simmered in a slightly sweet mixture which usually consists of dashi, mirin, soy, sugar, and maybe sake.
Don, short for donburi, which means bowl in Japanese is any rice-bowl dish that is served in an oversized rice bowl called a “donburi.”
However, there is a less common raw meat version of this dish not typically found on menus at most Japanese restaurants, which consists of thinly sliced raw beef served on top of a bowl of rice.
The meat used in this dish is usually high-quality raw steak, such as raw Wagyu beef sashimi or Kobe beef sashimi.
23) Gyu nigiri (Beef sushi)
Gyu nigiri is a type of sushi that consists of a bite-sized portion of sushi rice topped with a thin slice of beef.
Traditional gyu nigiri is served with raw beef marinated in soy sauce, mirin, and other seasonings to enhance its flavour.
There are modern variations of gyu nigiri that use seared or cooked beef.
Gyu nigiri is eaten with chopsticks and is usually garnished with wasabi, pickled onions, scallions, or other toppings.
Sushi vs sashimi vs nigiri
- “Sushi,” which means “soured rice” in Japanese, is a broad term that refers to any dish that consists of vinegared sushi rice combined with other ingredients such as seafood, meat, vegetables, and sometimes egg such as maki (rolled sushi) or nigiri.
- “Nigiri” written in Japanese characters “握りcan be translated as “to grasp or hold tightly,” or “to grip with two fingers.”It refers to the way chefs make nigiri sushi by using their index and middle fingers to shape the rice into the proper bite sized form.
- Sashimi is a dish of thinly sliced raw seafood or meat served without rice.
24) Rebā-sashi: Raw beef liver sashimi (banned for safety reasons)
Rebā-sashi, Rebā being the Japanese word for beef liver from the German word “Leber,” is a Japanese sashimi dish made from raw liver typically served with green onions, and sesame oil, infused with garlic, chilli and a little soy sauce, but not very much.
It used to be one of the dishes sold on the menus of Japanese yakitori, yakiniku, and izakaya restaurants, until 2012 when the Japanese food ministry banned restaurants from selling raw liver sashimi.
The ban was put in place after 24 people became seriously ill from food poisoning, 5 of which died after eating raw beef liver at a major restaurant chain in Japan.
Despite the ban, a few Japanese restaurants filled the black market gap and discreetly sell raw liver on a secret back menu. If caught, the owners of these restaurants will be arrested for violating the food sanitation law. You can also find Japanese recipe websites detailing how to prepare raw liver sashimi like this one.
Pork, horse, and chicken livers have not been banned from being served raw, and shops that sell them have become popular in Japan.
To satiate people’s desire to eat liver sashimi, companies such as the Japan Seaweed Food Research Institute have succeeded in developing imitation (mokoki) raw beef liver made from milk and seaweed powder. And some Japanese yakiniku restaurants are offering substitutes, such as imitation raw liver made with konjac.
Here’s a website that talks about the taste of faux liver sashimi.
25) Kitfo (raw minced meat)
Kitfo is one of the national dishes of Ethiopia, often served on special occasions and in Ethiopian restaurants.
The name Kitfo is from the verb “kutaf,” which means to chop or mince meat in Amharic.
Amharic is a Semitic language spoken by the Amhara people in Ethiopia,and one of the official languages of Ethiopia
This Ethiopian dish is made with raw ground beef or finely chopped raw beef marinated in “niter kibbeh” (a spiced clarified butter) and seasoned with mitmita, which gives the kitfo a spicy kick and is a key ingredient in the dish.
The Mitmita spice mixture can vary depending on the region and the cook, but it typically includes a blend of chilli peppers, cumin, coriander, cardamom, and cloves. Some variations of mitmita may also include ginger, garlic, or fenugreek.
The dish is typically served with injera bread, a sourdough flatbread. Depending on the region and the personal preferences of the cook, some versions of Kitfo may also include various side dishes such as cooked greens, lentils, boiled eggs, collard greens, or Ayib, a type of Ethiopian cheese.
26) Gored Gored (Raw raw)
“Gored Gored” is another Ethiopian dish made with raw beef served with injera flatbread which is used as a utensil to scoop up the “gored gored” and the additional condiments.
The name “gored gored” comes from the Amharic language, which means raw or uncooked, so the name “gored gored” essentially means “raw raw.”
People often compare this dish to Kitfo, Ethiopia’s other raw beef dish. However, the raw beef in Gored Gored is typically cut into small cubes, not minced.
Another difference is the
Instead, it is served with a side of mitmita
The sour lemon wedges balance out the heat from the mitmita, while the awaze chilli sauce adds spice and flavour to the dish.
27) Bo Tai Chanh (Rare lime beef)
Bo Tai Chanh is a Vietnamese raw beef salad typically served as an appetizer.
The dish is made with thin slices of raw beef marinated in a mixture of lime juice, fish sauce, sugar, garlic, and chilli peppers—the marinade “cooks” the beef, giving it a tender texture and tangy flavour.
The dish is usually served with various fresh herbs, such as mint and cilantro, and sometimes peanuts or crispy shallots are added for texture. The name “Bo Tai Chanh” translates to “rare beef lime,” referring to the raw beef and the use of lime juice in the marinade.
Thailand and Laos
28) Larb Diip (raw minced)
“Larb diip” also spelled (larp, lahb or laab), roughly translates to “raw minced” in Thai and the Lao language.
This tangy raw meat salad is typically made with minced raw beef and served with fresh vegetables and sticky rice. It’s popular in Laos but is also eaten in Northeastern Thailand.
Depending on the region, it’s seasoned with a variety of herbs and
Larb can also be cooked, which can be made with minced meat such as pork, chicken or beef.
The version made with bile and raw blood
There is also a version made with raw blood, kidney, fat, and bile called “larb luat” in Lao or Lu in Thai. It’s typically made with raw pork or raw beef and
29) Koi Nuea (raw beef)
“Koi Nuea” or “Koi Neua” is a spicy raw beef dish popular in Laos and the northeastern region of Thailand. “Koi” means raw, and “Nuea” means beef in Thai, while “Neua” means beef in the Lao language.
This Southeast Asian raw beef dish is typically made by marinating thinly sliced raw beef in lime juice and fish sauce, then mixing it with chilli powder, sliced shallots, and other seasonings.
Some versions of the dish may also include toasted ground rice for texture, e. It’s often served with fresh herbs, vegetables, and sticky rice.
wrapping up raw beef dishes and raw steak dishes from around the world
Whether you’re a die-hard fan or a curious first-timer, raw steak and raw beef dishes may not be everyone’s cup of tea, but they do have a unique place in the culinary world.
From classic steak tartare to the more adventurous Japanese “Rebā-sashi” made with raw beef liver, these dishes give us a glimpse into different cultures and their food traditions.
If you’re interested in raw meat dishes, you should check out my post about cured charcuterie meats.